Theme D: Mountain Ecosystems

Mountain ecosystems are hotspots of biological and cultural diversity, as well as host endemic species and ancestral knowledge. They influence climate at different scales providing a variety of ecosystem services, such as the regulation of hydrological processes, and carbon storage. However, this type of ecosystem is particularly vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic threats, for instance, volcanic activity, floods, soil erosion and degradation, and loss of vegetation cover due to inadequate agricultural and industrial practices.